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Navigating The Depths: 6 Steps to Create A Dungeons & Dragons Cave Map

Updated: Oct 25, 2023

Free Dungeons and Dragons cave map
Feel free to download this D&D cave map to use for your game. Made in Dungeon Draft by Joey's Journeys.

Dungeons and Dragons is a game of imagination, strategy, and adventure. It allows players to create and explore fantastical worlds full of danger and wonder.

At the heart of this game is the map, which serves as a guide for the players as they navigate through the various challenges and obstacles presented to them. A well-designed dungeons and dragons cave map can make the difference between a thrilling adventure and a lacklustre experience.

In this blog, we'll explore the importance of a well-designed cave map in D&D. I'll provide tips for creating a dynamic underground map that will leave your players wondering what's around the next corner. We will delve into the intricacies of terrain, combat, and flavour, giving you the tools you need to create a memorable and engaging cave map.

Plus as a bonus, you can have access to a free completed cave map in Dungeon Draft, which you can use for your own dungeon! So let's dive in and start designing a map that will take your players on an epic journey through the depths of a treacherous cave.

1) The Basics: Understanding Cave Terrain

Caves can be a maze of winding tunnels, caverns, and pitfalls, and it's important to accurately represent these features on a map to help guide players through the cave. Some common terrain types found in caves include stalactites (on the ceiling) and stalagmites (on the floor), water sources, rock formations, and passages.

There are different ways to represent terrain on a map, such as using colour-coded symbols or shaded areas to indicate elevation changes. The provided map I made contains one main level and the wooden chapel, which is slightly lower.

Check this example from the D&D starter set Lost Mines of Phandelver, Wave Echo Cave. Notice the use of water features and the variation of room sizes and shapes (some square/worked and others rough and natural).

It's important to keep in mind that too much detail can overwhelm players (and even the DM), while too little can make the map unclear. Striking the right balance is essential to creating a functional and visually appealing map (more on that below).

When designing a cave map, there are several factors to consider, including the size and shape of the cave, the location of key features like entrances and exits, and the presence of potential obstacles such as boulders or pools of water.

These factors can affect the flow of the game, and it's important to design a map that accommodates different player strategies and playstyles. By understanding the terrain and considering key factors, you can create a map that will enhance the overall gaming experience and help players navigate the depths of a treacherous cave.

2) Designing & Creating Your Cave Map For Play

Dungeons and Dragons Cave Map

Once you have a solid understanding of the terrain, it's time to create your cave map. Choosing the appropriate scale is an important first step. If your map is too small, players may miss important details, while a map that is too large can become overwhelming. A good rule of thumb is to use a scale of 1 inch equals 5 or 10ft.

Next, decide whether you will sketch the map by hand or use a digital tool. Sketching by hand can be a great way to get started, allowing you to quickly map out the cave's layout and make adjustments as needed. However, digital tools such as Dungeon Draft offer a wider range of features, allowing you to create more complex maps quickly with greater detail.

As you add details to your map, think about the types of obstacles and challenges you want to include. Consider adding tunnels, dark cavernous chambers, and obstacles such as pits, boulders, or even barricades set up by clever monsters.

Don't feel pressured to include every possible detail. Besides, leaving some areas undefined can add an element of mystery to the map and room for improvisation (such as random encounters).

Keep the following tips in mind if you're running your game online or in person:

  • Using Virtual Tabletop: Generally, you can add more detail with electronic maps such as rivers, underground lakes, terrain pieces, campsites and more.

  • In-Person Play: If you're hand-drawing a map, you may want to practice putting in details by hand. It's generally harder to add detail so you may want to start simple or consider some D&D accessories to help bring your map to life.

  • Hybrid (in-person with Virtual Map): You may have outfitted your gaming table with a monitor or small TV. This way, you can add detail in your virtual map while playing in person.

By carefully considering scale, sketching, and adding some details, you can create a well-crafted cave map that will enhance the immersion and enjoyment of your D&D game.

3) Encounter Considerations

Designing a dynamic cave map for D&D involves more than just depicting the terrain. It's important to consider how the map will be used for designing different types of encounters, including combat, exploration, and roleplaying.

When planning for potential combat encounters in the cave, think about the types of monsters or enemies that might be present, and design the map accordingly. Consider chokepoints, ambush spots, defences and other tactical elements that will make the combat encounter more engaging and challenging for the players. Here are a few examples:

  • Incorporating multiple floors, cliffs and 3D elements into the map.

  • Adding cover options, barricades, and chokepoints to create tactical situations.

  • Using both narrow tunnels and wide chambers. This gives characters opportunities to shine with melee or ranged abilities.

Your cave map should also be designed to facilitate exploration and roleplaying encounters. This could include hidden areas or secret passages, as well as opportunities for players to use their skills or abilities to discover new information about the cave. In the provided map, maybe there are some nonplayer characters (NPCs) trapped in cages in the South chamber, waiting to be rescued?

By considering the different types of encounters that will take place in the cave, and designing the map accordingly, you can create an immersive and engaging experience that will keep players coming back for more.

4) Adding Flavour

D&D cave map details

To make your cave map truly memorable, consider adding flavorful details that will bring the environment to life. Incorporating environmental elements like rock formations, water sources, and natural hazards can make the cave feel more dynamic and immersive.

Think about adding features that are unique to the cave's location and history. This could include artifacts, architecture, or clues to the cave's past. In the provided map example, I included an old chapel built. Was this built by previous occupants or perhaps by nefarious clerics meddling with dark forces? Maybe the new occupants are discovering - or being influenced - by the dark magic once practiced there.

Creating a sense of wonder and mystery is important when designing a cave map. Including hidden areas and secrets for players to discover can add excitement and intrigue to the game. Whether it's a hidden treasure trove or a forgotten chamber filled with ancient relics, these discoveries can make the cave feel like a living and breathing part of your game world.

By adding these flavorful details, you can take a traditional dungeon and transform it into an unforgettable gaming experience for your players.

5) Feedback, Playtest & Refine Your Cave Map

After designing your cave map, it's can help to playtest or show it to someone who isn't playing in your game. Getting a second perspective could allow you to see how the map works and appears in practice and identify any issues or challenges that need to be addressed.

Based on the feedback, you may need to make adjustments to the map to improve gameplay. This could include tweaking the layout, adjusting the scale, or adding or removing obstacles or other elements that aren't clear.

6) Improvisation During Live Play

Refining your Dungeons and dragons map

During live play, try not to be limited by your own map.

Refine it as you go to ensure that it remains engaging and challenging for the players. This could include adding new features or obstacles based on the players' actions or adjusting the map to account for changes in the game's narrative.

For example, what if your players set off a powerful explosive in a blocked passage? What happens if the explosion is too powerful? Will this cut off their exit? Players may have to find an alternative way out if this is the case.

By playtesting and adjusting your cave map on the fly, you can ensure that it provides a fun and engaging experience for your players, and helps to bring your game world to life.


Even if a cave is a "typical" dungeon, a well-designed map is a crucial aspect of your game. A dynamic and engaging cave map can make all the difference in creating an immersive gaming experience for players and the dungeon master.

By understanding the terrain, considering different types of encounters, adding flavorful details, and playtesting and refining the map, you can create a map that will challenge and excite your players.

For those who may need a little extra help, don't forget to download the free completed cave map at the top of the blog. If you want more content just like this, consider subscribing today!

Consider becoming a Patron to support my ongoing quest to create amazing D&D content for your games.

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